Friday, June 30, 2023


There are myriad thoughts and studies on this issue, so let’s see what Scripture itself reveals about Yeshua's birth:

Luke 2: 1. Now it happened in those days that a decree went out from Augustus Caesar that the names of all the people of his dominion should be written down. 2. This census first happened during the governorship of Qurinius in Syria. 3. And everyone went in his own city to be registered. 4. And Yosip was also going up from Nasrath, a city of Galeela into Yehuda to the city of Dawid, which is called Beth-Lekhem, because he was from the house and from the clan of Dawid, 5. With Maryam his bride while she was pregnant, that there they might be registered.

6. And it happened that while they were there, her days of pregnancy were fulfilled. 7. And she bore him a firstborn son and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger because there was no room where they could lodge. 8. At this time shepherds were there in that region were they were lodging and keeping watch there at night over their flocks. (AENT)

So … Miriam was forced to give birth in a stable because there was no room at the inn - because people from all over had gathered in Jerusalem for the census! (In those days you returned to your native home to be registered.) Not to mention, as we'll see later, it was also the festival of Sukkot - Tabernacles - when many pilgrims came to celebrate in Jerusalem ... which meant the inns were full....

Bethlehem is only about 5 miles from Jerusalem and so Y'shua was born there because there was no room at any of the inns in either Jerusalem or Bethlehem. Yeshua had to be born in Bethlehem because the name Bethlehem means "House Of Bread", with the strong connotation of House Of Battle. And as we all know, Y'shua is the Bread of Life" (John 6:43-51).

There are 7 historical anchors to the date of the Messiah's birth which narrow the range of the birth to the first two weeks of September, 5 BCE (Gregorian proleptic calendar). This article does not provide the details but here are the 7 anchors:

  • Both Matthew and Luke agree that Yeshua was born in the last days of King Herod the Great
    No significant astronomical events were observed prior to 7 BCE which would direct the Magi to the birth of the Messiah
  • The "shepherds" were living in the fields, (Luke 2:8), so it was not yet winter
  • The purification period of Yeshua's mother Mary for the birth of a boy required 41 days. Herod does not order the slaughter of the male infants till this purification period has ended and Mary and Joseph must stay in the area the whole time.
  • Three references in the Gospels about astronomical events reveal the time Herod was told of the birth which led Herod to kill infant boys two-years old and under Jupiter, the "King Star" was observed rising in the east in late May, 5 BCE "There was no room at the inn" reveals more than commonly known. The "inns" are filled because there was a census and observant Jews were preparing for the annual Sukkot celebration.

All of these historical events narrow the date of the birth to the first two weeks of September (Gregorian), 5 BCE.  Please click here to read more about this very interesting topic. 

Monday, June 26, 2023

If God’s Eye is "on the sparrow," just think about how much He loves YOU!…

One morning, as I was hosing off the front porch, I noticed high up on a corner wall, what I thought was a hornet’s nest.  But upon closer inspection, I realized it was a bird’s nest, as it had a few little branches sticking out of the sides.  Googling the oddly designed nest revealed that our house had apparently been adopted by a pair of Barn Swallows getting ready to raise a family.

A couple days later, I noticed a tiny little, fuzzy bird on the concrete, directly below the nest.  Of course, I wanted to help it out somehow - perhaps try to put it back into the nest - but then I quickly came to realize that its Mom was not only eye-balling, but actually dive-bombing me, and so I decided to leave it alone and let nature take its course.
The next day - lo and behold! - we had TWO little ones on the front porch floor, huddled together for comfort.  This made us realize that the parents were apparently pushing them out of the nest, for whatever reason, and so we simply checked on them throughout the day, watching in fascination how they were being fed and cared for by both parents.  Mom and Dad were always close by, either sitting somewhere on the porch ,or the front lawn near the little ones, and taking turns flying around to gather food for their babies. 

Once, when a fox tried to investigate the front porch for a quick snack, it was aggressively dive-bombed and driven out by Mom and Dad and at least a dozen of their Barn Sparrow friends!  (Tom and I prayed for God’s protection of these sweet little ones, as there are lots of foxes in our neighborhood – two of which seem to like to sleep in our back yard sometimes.) 

Anyway, as the tiny pair kept growing over the next couple of days, they began to venture out onto our walkway, away from the porch.  We were very worried that evening, when they chose not to return to the porch, opting instead to spend the night several yards away in the middle of that walkway. The next morning, to our great dismay, we discovered one of the babies gone, and the other sitting quietly all alone on the front porch, with the parents hanging out nearby.

That evening, that poor little thing had to endure a second trauma via a major hailstorm that blasted us with some baseball-sized hail. We didn't have to rescue the birdie, though, as it was smart enough to hunker down behind one of the pillars on the front porch. Afterward, we saw Mom and Dad hovering nearby to to calm their quaking baby.

Several days have passed, and that baby has never again ventured out onto the walkway, so apparently it realized that the world can be a very dangerous place…

We’ve been “birdie hosts” for about a week and a half now - and our front lawn really needs mowing, but we’ve asked the lawn guy to wait until the little one takes flight, because we don’t to risk upsetting our little feathered family anymore than necessary.  They've already endured enough. 

So far, so good.  That baby is no longer a little fuzz ball, as it has grown feathers and is even able to fly an inch or two off the ground now (it’s been trying REALLY hard).  It shouldn’t be much longer before the family “flies the coop” for “greener pastures” – and honestly, we can’t wait because our front porch needs a good hosing down!

It’s been a fun adventure – and all I could think of this whole time is, "what an amazing ELOHIM we serve!"  He has instilled in each animal, fish and bird, and all living creatures, the know-how to do and be exactly what they were designed to do! These tiny birds “just knew” how to raise a family; to take care of, and feed and teach their young.

You could truly see His Divine Hand in all this.  You could tell that He knows and loves each one - even though, in our “fallen world,” they don’t all make it to adulthood. That's just how "nature" is, and we have to deal with it...

Regardless, that being the case, just think how much more He loves us humans - the ONLY ones to whom He gave Free Will ... and the innate knowledge to yearn for Him,  learn of Him, to KNOW Him, and to CHOOSE to become like refined silver that reflects His Perfect Image!  What an AWESOME God we serve - Halleluyah!


Job 12: 7 “But ask the animals — they will teach you — and the birds in the air — they will tell you; 8 or speak to the earth — it will teach you — and the fish in the sea will inform you: 9 every one of them knows that the hand of Adonai has done this! 10 In his hand is the life of every living thing and the spirit of every human being. (CJB)

Matthew 6: 26 Look at the birds of the air: they neither sow nor reap nor gather into barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not of more value than they? (AENT)

Matthew 10:29 – 31: Are not two sparrows sold for a penny? And not one of them will fall to the ground apart from your Father. But even the hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear not, therefore; you are of more value than many sparrows. (ESV)


Luke 12:4. But I say to you my friends, do not have fear of those who kill the body and after that they have nothing more to do.  5. But I will show you whom to be afraid of.  He whom, after he has killed, has authority to throw into Gehenna.  Yes, I say to you have fear of him. 6. Are not five sparrows sold for two coins, and yet not one of them is lost before Elohim.  7. But even the individual hairs of your head are numbered.  Therefore, do not have fear because you are more valuable than a multitude of sparrows.
8. And I say to you that whomever confesses me before men, the Son of man also will confess before the Messengers of Elohim.  9. But whoever denies me before men will himself be denied before the Messengers of Elohim.  10. And anyone who says a word against the Son of man, it will be forgiven him, but he who blasphemes against the Ruach haKodesh will not be forgiven him.

11. And when they bring you into the assemblies before chiefs and authorities, do not be anxious about how your breath should depart, or what you should say.  12. For the Ruach haKodesh (Holy Spirit) will teach you at that moment what is worthy that you should say.  (AENT)

Psalm 84:3 the sparrow finds herself a home and the swallow her nest, where she lays her young, [so my resting-place is] by your altars, Adonai-Tzva’ot, my king and my God. (CJB)

Saturday, June 17, 2023

Let’s take another look at that “lunar Shabbat” idea…

For those who have never heard of “Lunar Shabbat”, there are certain Messianic/Hebrew Roots types who insist that the weekly Shabbat (Sabbath) does NOT fall on the Seventh Day of the week; rather, that it is determined by the New Moon each month.

They believe Shabbat always falls on the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th of the month, and claim that ALL instances in the Bible where a Shabbat can be dated or the date inferred, it is always the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th of the month - and cannot be proven otherwise!

Well, that is totally untrue – and my late husband, Bill Welker, proved it both biblically and scientifically.  (Here is his whole article, if you are interested in doing a deeper study on this issue: Lunar Shabbat – NOT! )

So, let’s begin by checking out some of the basic “Sabbath” scriptures that seem to be ignored by the lunar sabbatarians:

In Genesis 1:1-31, and Genesis 2:1-3, we see that YHWH Himself established, blessed, and separated the Seventh Day as “holy”:

Genesis 2: Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, along with everything in them. 2 On the seventh day God was finished with his work which he had made, so he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. 3 God blessed the seventh day and separated it as holy; because on that day God rested from all his work which he had created, so that it itself could produce. (CJB)

Exodus 20:8 "Remember the day, Shabbat, to set it apart for God. 9 You have six days to labor and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a Shabbat for ADONAI your God. (CJB)

Exodus 31:16 The people of Isra'el are to keep the Shabbat, to observe Shabbat through all their generations as a perpetual covenant. 17 It is a sign between me and the people of Isra'el forever; for in six days ADONAI made heaven and earth, but on the seventh day he stopped working and rested.'" (CJB)

Leviticus 23: 3 " 'There are six days when you may work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of rest, a day of sacred assembly. You are not to do any work; wherever you live, it is a Sabbath to the LORD. (CJB)

Do you see any mention of the "new moons" in any of the scriptures above?

Here is the bottom line: ADONAI told His people to count SIX DAYS, and the Seventh would be the Sabbath.

Exodus 16:16 Here is what ADONAI has ordered: each man is to gather according to his appetite - each is to take an 'omer [two quarts] per person for everyone in his tent." 17 The people of Isra'el did this. Some gathered more, some less; 18 but when they put it in an 'omer-measure, whoever had gathered much had no excess; and whoever had gathered little had no shortage; nevertheless each person had gathered according to his appetite.

19 Moshe told them, "No one is to leave any of it till morning." 20 But they didn't pay attention to Moshe, and some kept the leftovers until morning. It bred worms and rotted, which made Moshe angry at them. 21 So they gathered it morning after morning, each person according to his appetite; but as the sun grew hot, it melted.

22 On the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two 'omers per person; and all the community leaders came and reported to Moshe. 23 He told them, "This is what ADONAI has said: 'Tomorrow is a holy Shabbat for ADONAI. Bake what you want to bake; boil what you want to boil; and whatever is left over, set aside and keep for the morning.'" 24 They set it aside till morning, as Moshe had ordered; and it didn't rot or have worms.

25 Moshe said, "Today, eat that; because today is a Shabbat for ADONAI - today you won't find it in the field. 26 Gather it six days, but the seventh day is the Shabbat - on that day there won't be any." 27 However, on the seventh day, some of the people went out to gather and found none. 28 ADONAI said to Moshe, "How long will you refuse to observe my mitzvot and teachings? 29 Look, ADONAI has given you the Shabbat. This is why he is providing bread for two days on the sixth day. Each of you, stay where you are; no one is to leave his place on the seventh day." (CJB)

The above passage makes it abundantly clear that something happened to the manna every day except on the sixth day: It would stink and breed worms if it was kept longer than a day! However, on the sixth day, whenever a double portion was gathered to last them through Shabbat (the Seventh Day) the manna did not spoil. On Shabbat Israel was instructed to remain in their tents and not attempt to gather manna because there would be none. Those who tried to gather on the seventh day were admonished.

Lastly, author and Aramaic and Hebrew scholar, Andrew Gabriel Roth, uses John 7 to completely squash the “Lunar Shabbat” argument:

John 7: 19. Did not Moshe give you Torah, yet not a man among you kept Torah?[1] 20. Why do you want to kill me? The crowd answered and said, “You have a demon! Who wants to kill you?” 21. Y’shua answered and said to them, One work I have done and all of you marvel! 22. Because of this, Moshe gave circumcision to you. It was not because it was from him, Moshe, but from the patriarchs; yet you circumcise a man on the day of the Shabbat. 23. If a man is circumcised on the day of the Shabbat so that the Torah of Moshe not be loosed, why do you argue against me because the man I have made whole on the day[2] of the Shabbat? 24. Do not be judging by hypocrisy, rather judge with a just judgment. (AENT)


[1] The Pharisees face a very stern rebuke here from Y’shua for not keeping the Torah of Moshe; his language could not be stronger. Y’shua’s teaching comes from the “divine” side (qnoma) within him. It is YHWH who is speaking through Mashiyach Y’shua. By contrast, “not a man among you,” not one Pharisee, is keeping Torah. The message is clear; Y’shua in effect is saying, “who are you to judge me when you don’t practice what you preach?” Even as a child from Galeela, Y’shua had a flawless understanding of Torah. Y’shua never lived one standard for himself while teaching another to the Pharisees, and another to his Jewish followers, and yet another for non-Jews. See Matthew 5:20.

[2] This event is in active participle form in Aramaic, indicating that it is unfolding into the immediate present. As a result, this verse clearly invalidates the false theory of a lunar Shabbat. This cannot be referring to a miracle on any other time but, rather, at that moment on that day – since that selfsame moment is called the Shabbat day!

Y’shua states that a day between the first and last days of Sukkot is the Shabbat. That being the case, the Shabbat is by definition, falling on a day other than the 1st, 8th, 15th, 22nd or 29th day of the month! This imperative clearly nullifies the lunar Shabbat falsehood; it is validated by Aramaicists and authoritative Aramaic grammars of both Christian and Jewish persuasion. Neither is there any historical documentation among Netzarim followers of Y’shua regarding the observance of a lunar Shabbat.

Nor do Jewish historians such as Yoseph ben Mattathias (Josephus) support the theory that Y’shua’s talmidim observed a lunar Shabbat. Had Y’shua or his talmidim adopted lunar Shabbat observance, the Rabbinical world would have raked them over the coals, but no such thing is evidenced in Jewish writings.

And so there you have all the proof you need about the SEVENTH DAY Sabbath! 

(By the way, the "seventh day" on the Gregorian calendar falls on Saturday and it's the same 7th day observed since at least the time of Moshe! Please check out our article: Origin of the Seventh Day)

Saturday, June 10, 2023

That pesky 2 Corinthians 3…

Someone recently challenged me on this passage to “prove” that Torah was abolished at the cross:

2 Corinthians 3: 13 We are not like Moses, who would put a veil over his face to prevent the Israelites from seeing the end of what was passing away. 14 But their minds were made dull, for to this day the same veil remains when the old covenant is read. It has not been removed, because only in Christ is it taken away. 15 Even to this day when Moses is read, a veil covers their hearts.

16 But whenever anyone turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away. 17 Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. 18 And we all, who with unveiled faces contemplate[a] the Lord’s glory, are being transformed into his image with ever-increasing glory, which comes from the Lord, who is the Spirit. (NIV)

See how the New International Bible version changed it to suggest that “Christ” somehow removed the need for the entire “Old Covenant?” Other “Greek” Bible versions do the same thing! (The “Old Testament” reveals WHO God (YHWH) is and what He expected of His people. Anyone who accepts Him as their God is HIS people – and those who are His, ARE expected to obey the Divine Rules designed to set them apart from the world…)

Anyway, let’s take a look at this passage through the “Hebrew” as opposed to the “Greek” mindset:

2 Corinthians 3:12. Seeing therefore we have this hope, we the more, speak with boldness; 13. And are not like Moshe, who threw a veil over his face that the children of Israel might not behold the termination of that (condemnation) which was abolished. 14. But they were blinded in their understanding because until this day, when the Ancient Covenant is read, the same veil rests upon them; nor is it manifest (to them), that it (condemnation) is abolished by the Mashiyach.

15. And to this day, when Moshe is read, a veil is thrown upon their hearts. 16. But when any of them is turned to Master YHWH, the veil is taken from him[*]. 17. Now Master YHWH Himself is the Spirit. And where the Spirit of Master YHWH is, there is freedom. 18. And we all, with uncovered faces, behold as in a mirror the glory of Master YHWH; and are transformed into the same likeness, from glory to glory, as by Master YHWH the Spirit. (Aramaic English New Testament/AENT)

Let’s put on our thinking caps and view this through the Hebrew, instead of the “Greek” mindset:

First, the context of this passage marked by the asterisk (*) does NOT suggest that Torah “blinds”; nor does the reading of the “Renewed Covenant” bring Grace. The context is that in each, one must “turn to Master YHWH with their hearts” to remove the veil.

Secondly, in verses 16 through 18, the use of the word “Lord” in the Greek versions makes it look as if it is referring to “Christ” (Messiah). However, the Aramaic actually uses the term “MarYah” meaning “Master YHWH” (the Father)!

Rather than people constantly turning to “Jesus” as the deciding factor (i.e., insisting he removed the need for Torah - the first five Books of the Bible that contain YHWH’s original Divine Instructions, designed to show us how to “be holy” - along with the rest of the “Old” Testament, people need to start viewing YHWH ELOHIM as our ancestors KNEW Him during the 4,000 years BEFORE Messiah ever came onto the scene. (YHWH handed down all kinds of instructions to mankind in Genesis 1 and throughout the rest of the Torah.)

If they would only STUDY the “Old Testament” in context, they would eventually discover that the “New” Testament” was NOT to show that “Jesus came to bring grace and abolish His Father’s Divine Instruction in Righteousness,’ with no other responsibilities besides “believing in Jesus.”

The “Hebrew context” (which began some 2,000 years ago, when men began to translate and MIS-translate the original manuscripts), reveals that YHWH sent His Messiah to return His people onto HIS Path of holiness, without all the additions and changes that men had begun to teach each other.

Yeshua’s task was to do His Father's will and NOT his own; that he would do everything His Father commanded, and then to martyr himself and thus become our Redeemer who – as we all know - substituted his nephesh/soul for ours so that we could TRULY come to know and follow YHWH’s ways and be “set apart” (instead of only “lukewarm” in our religiosity spawned by our limited, human mindsets) and ultimately receive eternal life.

NOTHING suggests that Yeshua came to bring a new religion or “abolish” His Father’s Divine Instructions OR anything else in what we call the “Old Testament!”

Luke 4:43 "But he (Yeshua/Jesus) said, "I must preach the good news of the Kingdom of God to the other towns also, because that is why I was sent."

Luke 8:1 And it happened after these things that Y'shua was going around in the cities and in the villages and was preaching and declaring the Kingdom of Elohim.

The bottom line is that Jews (who accept only the "Old Testament" while vehemently denying Yeshua's sacrifice on the stake) and Gentiles (who cling to the erroneous "Jesus abolished all that old stuff on the cross" and "it was only for the Jews" mindset) must learn to see “the whole picture” in context, instead of using prayers or certain passages (often taken out of context) to pretend that God doesn’t mind “opinions” or outright Scripture twisting to make us feel good.

Throughout the Gospels we see Yeshua giving Glory to the Father, and teaching men to turn hearts unto YHWH. It was never about himself; it was about the whole concept of ADONAI/ELOHIM God, and how to please Him so that we could learn to be holy and set apart, and thus gain eternal life instead of risking eternal separation from God.

It's heartbreaking to see the damage mankind has done to the Bible throughout the ages! Scripture reveals in several places that this would happen:

Ezekiel 22:26 Her pastors/priests have done violence to my law and have profaned my holy things. They have made no distinction between the holy and the common, neither have they taught the difference between the unclean and the clean, and they have disregarded my Sabbaths, so that I am profaned among them."

Proverbs 1:7 The fear of ADONAI is the beginning of knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and discipline.

28:4 Those who abandon Torah praise the wicked, but those who keep Torah fight them.

James 3:15 For this wisdom comes not down from above; but is earthly, and from the devices of the soul, and from demons. 16. For where envy and disputation are, there also is confusion and everything wrong. 17. But the wisdom which is from above is perfect and full of peace, and mild and submissive, and full of compassion and of good fruits, and without partiality and without respect of persons.

People can argue all day long about how they have the truth...but this gets us nowhere! In the end, there is only one truth - and that is YHWH's Truth! If we don’t adhere to it, then WHOM are we truly worshiping?

Wednesday, June 7, 2023

The importance of reading Scripture in context (using Galatians 3:19 as an example)

One example is Galatians 3:19 which myriads use to prove that Torah isn't necessary. That is truly an unfortunate train of thought, brought on by the fact that most will stop at verse 19, without reading the rest of the passage:

Galatians 3:19. Why then Torah? It was added because of apostasy, until the coming of the heir to whom the promise was made, and Torah was given by Messengers, by the hand of a mediator. (AENT)

See the problem? It looks as if Rav Shaul (Paul) is anti-Torah! However, Paul - as Peter explains in 2 Peter 3:15 - often had a hard time explaining deep Hebrew concepts to pagan audiences:

2 Peter 3:15 And think of our Lord’s patience as deliverance, just as our dear brother Sha’ul also wrote you, following the wisdom God gave him. 16 Indeed, he speaks about these things in all his letters. They contain some things that are hard to understand, things which the uninstructed and unstable distort, to their own destruction, as they do the other Scriptures. (CJB)

(WOW! Isn't it interesting to discover that Peter, way back then, was already warning people that Paul's letters would often be misinterpreted or misunderstood? 2 Peter 3:15 reveals that Paul's writings had already been turned into a Torahless fiasco, even in Peter’s day! We must also understand that it was not the Pharisees who were renouncing Torah Observance, but the humanist, pagan and materialist, “modernists” who were attempting to renounce anything that smacked of Judaism.)

Returning to the REST of the passage in Galatians 3 - let's read that whole passage, in context:

Galatians 3:19. Why then Torah? It was added because of apostasy, until the coming of the heir to whom the promise was made, and Torah was given by Messengers, by the hand of a mediator. 20. Now a mediator does not represent one alone, but Elohim is one.

21. Is the Torah we received against the promises of Elohim? Elohim forbid! For if Torah had been given, which was able to give life, then truly righteousness would have come as a result of Torah.[1] 22. But the Scripture has encircled all things and put them under sin, that the promise in the faith of Y’shua the Mashiyach might be given to those who believe.

23. But before faith came, Torah[2] was guarding[3] us while we were confined from the faith about to be revealed. 24. Torah was therefore a tutor for us, going towards the Mashiyach that we, by faith, might be made righteous. 25. But since faith came, we are no longer under tutors.[4] 26. For you are all the children of Elohim by faith in Y’shua the Mashiyach.

27. For those who have been immersed in Mashiyach have been clothed[5] with Mashiyach. 28. For there is neither Jew nor Aramean, nor slave nor free, nor male nor female, but you are all one in Y’shua the Mashiyach. 29. And if you are of the Mashiyach then you are seeds of Awraham and inheritors by the promise. (AENT)

Please take a moment to check out these important footnotes for the passage above:

[1] Torah is a very big deal in the Rabbinical Jewish world from which Rav Shaul (Rabbi/Apostle Paul) came. The point that he makes over and over is that while Torah is a very big deal, the giver of Torah is even bigger, meaning the following:

YHWH gave Torah as a Faith component of Covenant (terms and conditions) between Him and His people, so don’t disregard YHWH and put Him on the shelf because you think yourself a Torah scholar.

Worse yet, don’t put up fences and traditions that become more important to yourselves than YHWH and His Mashiyach (Messiah). Sadly, most will ask others extremely important questions about YHWH and Yeshua, long before they even consider going to YHWH Himself. Faith demands a person enter into an active relationship with YHWH and His Mashiyach, regardless if a person is Christian or Jewish.

[2] In this regard “Torah” can be compared with any righteous values a soul voluntarily imposes upon himself. However, as a spiritual relationship is established with YHWH and Yeshua, one is elevated to much higher levels of spiritual awareness and accountability. Therefore, it is a complete farce when people claim to follow Mashiyach, yet willfully violate Torah according to their denominational authorities. (See Matthew 7:23.)

[3] Most Greek translations have “kept in(ward) under the law” which is indicative of popular anti-Torah theology. However, many fail to understand that without the Torah of YHWH, there would be NO Standard with which to prove Mashiyach; therefore NO Mashiyach...

[4] In the most ancient manuscripts in the Peshitta, taraa is ‘tutors’; however, it was translated as the singular ‘tutor’ in Greek. Although the word taraa has the same spelling for both singular and plural, there are times such as here, when the grammar of the sentence does not directly reveal whether it is singular or plural. To correct this problem, the earliest scribes of the Peshitta inserted two dot plural markers called a syame above such words, as in this case.

A Greek redactor could easily miss these and mistake a singular word for a plural, or vice versa. Aramaic texts are unanimous for when the syames appear, making these readings highly reliable.

That being so, what we have here is the true tutor, Torah, being contrasted against false tutors, the Pharisees, who put their oral tradition above the written code of Moses and the Prophets. Such is a common refrain of Y’shua as well in places such as Matthew 15. Unfortunately, this passage was twisted into a “proof text” by anti-Torah types who wanted to distance themselves from the Faith of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

[5] That is, as a garment wraps a person inside, which is a very common idiom in both Hebrew and Aramaic. Paul uses it elsewhere in Ephesians when talking about putting on the armor of Elohim and the breastplate of righteousness. A very similar idiomatic usage, “clothed with zeal like a cloak”, is found in Isaiah 59:17.

...In closing, you can surely see that it's a huge mistake to take one single part of a particular passage, and attempt to prove your own theology. In the case of Galatians 3:19, many read just this and conclude Torah is a BAD thing. But when you look at the REST of of Galatians 3, you can see that the opposite is true: Torah was NOT abolished and it was never a "bad thing!"